1. Ball-and-Socket Joints:
Ball-and-socket joints allow a wide range of movement in multiple directions. They consist of a rounded end of one bone fitting into a cup-like socket of another bone. The hip and shoulder joints are examples of ball-and-socket joints.
2. Hinge Joints:
Hinge joints permit movement in one plane, like the opening and closing of a door. They involve the articulation of a convex surface of one bone with a concave surface of another bone. The elbow and knee joints are hinge joints.
3. Pivot Joints:
Pivot joints allow rotational movement around a central axis. They consist of one bone rotating within a ring formed by another bone and a ligament. An example of a pivot joint is the joint between the first and second vertebrae of the neck, which enables the head to turn.
4. Condyloid Joints:
Condyloid joints permit movement in two planes, allowing bending and straightening, as well as some side-to-side movement. They involve an oval-shaped condyle of one bone fitting into an elliptical cavity of another bone. The wrist joint is an example of a condyloid joint.
5. Saddle Joints:
Saddle joints allow movement in two planes similar to condyloid joints but with a greater range of motion. They involve the articulation of two bones, each with a convex surface in one direction and a concave surface in the other, resembling a saddle. The joint at the base of the thumb is a saddle joint.
6. Gliding Joints:
Gliding joints enable sliding or gliding movements between flat surfaces of bones. They provide limited motion in multiple directions. The joints between the small bones of the wrist and ankle are examples of gliding joints.
These are the six main types of synovial joints found in the human body. Each type allows different ranges and types of movement, providing flexibility and stability to the skeletal system.