Everything You Need to Know About the Different Types of Quail

Types of Quail: Exploring the Diversity of a Fascinating Bird Species

Quails are small, ground-dwelling birds that belong to the family Phasianidae. They are known for their unique characteristics and have captured the interest of bird enthusiasts and researchers alike. In this article, we will delve into the world of quails and explore the various types of quail species found across the globe.

1. Common Quail (Coturnix coturnix)

The Common Quail, also known as the European Quail, is a widespread species found in Europe, Asia, and Africa. These migratory birds undertake impressive journeys, traveling long distances between their breeding and wintering grounds. Common Quails have a mottled brown plumage with distinctive streaks and a compact, rounded body shape.

2. Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica)

The Japanese Quail, native to East Asia, is a popular species for aviculture and scientific research. It is smaller in size compared to the Common Quail and exhibits a wide range of plumage color variations, including brown, white, and speckled patterns. Japanese Quails are known for their remarkable egg-laying capabilities and are often raised for commercial purposes.

3. California Quail (Callipepla californica)

The California Quail, also referred to as the Valley Quail, is a distinct species native to the western regions of North America. Known for its striking appearance, the male California Quail displays a unique combination of a black face, brown plumage, and a prominent curved topknot on its head. These quails are highly social and often form small flocks known as “coveys.”

4. Gambel’s Quail (Callipepla gambelii)

Gambel’s Quail is another North American species that inhabits the southwestern regions of the United States and parts of Mexico. These quails are characterized by their intricate plumage patterns, which include a scalloped appearance with gray, chestnut, and cream-colored feathers. Gambel’s Quail are primarily ground-dwellers but can also fly short distances when necessary.

5. Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus)

The Bobwhite Quail, native to North America, is known for its distinctive whistle-like call that sounds like “bob-white.” These quails are commonly found in grasslands, agricultural areas, and open woodlands. The males have a white throat and a striking pattern of black and white on their heads. Bobwhite Quails are popular game birds and are often hunted in some regions.

6. Mountain Quail (Oreortyx pictus)

The Mountain Quail is a unique species found in the mountainous regions of western North America. Its habitat preference for dense, brushy areas makes it a challenging bird to spot. Mountain Quails have a plump body, a grayish-blue plumage, and a distinctive head crest. They are known for their strong family bonds and the ability to fly swiftly over short distances.


The world of quails is a fascinating one, offering a diverse array of species with distinct characteristics and habitats. From the migratory Common Quail to the visually striking California Quail, each type of quail contributes to the rich tapestry of avian diversity. Whether you’re an avid birdwatcher, an aspiring aviculturist, or simply interested in the wonders of nature, exploring the various types of quail opens up a realm of discovery and appreciation for these remarkable birds.