Prickly pear is a common name given to several species of cacti in the Opuntia genus. These cacti are characterized by their flat, paddle-shaped stems and clusters of spines or glochids (tiny barbed hairs) that cover their surface. Here are some types of prickly pear cacti:
1. Opuntia ficus-indica
Opuntia ficus-indica, also known as Indian fig opuntia or Barbary fig, is one of the most widely cultivated species of prickly pear. It has large, thick pads with prominent spines and produces sweet, edible fruits known as prickly pears or cactus fruits. Opuntia ficus-indica is native to Mexico but is now cultivated in many parts of the world.
2. Opuntia engelmannii
Opuntia engelmannii, commonly called Engelmann’s prickly pear, is native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It has smaller pads compared to Opuntia ficus-indica and typically has yellow flowers. It is a hardy species that can tolerate hot and arid conditions.
3. Opuntia phaeacantha
Opuntia phaeacantha, also known as the tulip prickly pear or desert prickly pear, is native to the arid regions of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It has distinctive red or orange flowers that resemble tulips. The pads of Opuntia phaeacantha are covered with glochids and spines.
4. Opuntia microdasys
Opuntia microdasys, commonly known as bunny ears cactus or polka-dot cactus, is a smaller species of prickly pear. It is characterized by its small pads that resemble bunny ears and lack large spines, although it has numerous glochids. Opuntia microdasys is native to Mexico and is popular as an ornamental plant.
5. Opuntia santa-rita
Opuntia santa-rita, also called Santa Rita prickly pear or purple prickly pear, is a species known for its attractive purple or lavender pads. It is native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Opuntia santa-rita produces yellow flowers and is favored for its ornamental value.
These are just a few examples of the many species and cultivars of prickly pear cacti that exist. Prickly pears are valued for their ornamental appeal, as well as their edible fruits in some cases. However, it’s important to exercise caution when handling these cacti due to their spines and glochids, which can cause irritation or injury.