A Comprehensive Guide to the Different Types of Knee Surgery

Types of Knee Surgery

Knee surgery refers to various surgical procedures performed to treat a wide range of knee-related conditions and injuries. The specific type of knee surgery recommended depends on the underlying problem and the individual’s unique circumstances. Here are some common types of knee surgeries:

1. Arthroscopy

Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that allows the surgeon to visualize, diagnose, and treat problems inside the knee joint. It involves making small incisions and inserting a tiny camera called an arthroscope to guide the surgical instruments. Arthroscopy is commonly used for procedures such as meniscus repairs, cartilage restoration, ligament reconstructions, and removal of loose bodies.

2. Total Knee Replacement (TKR)

Total knee replacement, also known as knee arthroplasty, is a procedure performed to replace the damaged or diseased knee joint with artificial components. The surgeon removes the damaged surfaces of the knee joint and replaces them with metal and plastic implants. TKR is often recommended for individuals with severe arthritis or significant knee joint damage that causes chronic pain and functional limitations.

3. Partial Knee Replacement

Partial knee replacement, also called unicompartmental knee replacement, is a procedure where only the affected compartment of the knee joint is replaced with an implant. It is performed when the damage is limited to one specific area of the knee, typically the medial (inner) or lateral (outer) compartment. Partial knee replacement is a less invasive procedure than total knee replacement and may result in faster recovery and less post-operative pain.

4. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction

ACL reconstruction is a surgical procedure performed to repair a torn or damaged anterior cruciate ligament in the knee. During the procedure, the surgeon replaces the torn ligament with a graft, which may be harvested from the patient’s own tissue or obtained from a donor. ACL reconstruction is commonly performed using arthroscopic techniques and is followed by a rehabilitation program to restore knee stability and function.

5. Meniscus Repair

Meniscus repair is a surgical procedure performed to treat a torn meniscus in the knee. The meniscus is a C-shaped cartilage that acts as a shock absorber between the thighbone (femur) and the shinbone (tibia). The surgeon uses arthroscopic techniques to repair the torn meniscus by either suturing the torn edges together or removing the damaged portion. Meniscus repair aims to restore knee function, reduce pain, and prevent further damage.

6. Patellar Realignment Procedures

Patellar realignment procedures are performed to correct problems related to the patella (kneecap), such as patellar dislocation or instability. These procedures may involve releasing tight structures, realigning the patella, or reconstructing ligaments to improve stability and tracking of the patella within the femoral groove.


These are just a few examples of the common types of knee surgeries. The choice of surgery depends on the specific condition or injury affecting the knee joint. It is important to consult with an orthopedic surgeon who will evaluate the individual’s condition and recommend the most appropriate surgical approach to achieve the best possible outcome.