Everything You Need to Know About the Different Types of Antibodies

1. IgG (Immunoglobulin G):

IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in the bloodstream, accounting for approximately 75-80% of all antibodies. It plays a crucial role in long-term immunity, as it can cross the placenta to provide passive immunity to newborns. IgG antibodies are effective against bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

2. IgM (Immunoglobulin M):

IgM antibodies are the first antibodies produced during an immune response. They are primarily found in the bloodstream and are responsible for early defense against pathogens. IgM antibodies are effective at activating the complement system, which helps to destroy pathogens.

3. IgA (Immunoglobulin A):

IgA antibodies are primarily found in the mucous membranes, such as those lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. They provide protection against pathogens at the sites of entry into the body, preventing their colonization and spread.

4. IgE (Immunoglobulin E):

IgE antibodies are involved in allergic reactions and defense against parasitic infections. They are present in small amounts in the bloodstream but are found in higher concentrations in tissues that are in direct contact with the external environment, such as the skin and respiratory tract.

5. IgD (Immunoglobulin D):

IgD antibodies are primarily found on the surface of B cells, where they function as antigen receptors. Their precise role in the immune response is not fully understood, but they are thought to be involved in the activation and regulation of the immune system.

These are the five main types of antibodies produced by the immune system. Each type has distinct functions and is specialized in targeting specific pathogens or participating in different stages of the immune response.